DIAGRAMMATIC FLOW SHEET LEGEND
Contaminated water to be treated in pipeline with valves
to alternate to vessels in parallel.
Vessel to hold contaminated water for storage,
homogenizing, and pretreatment for problematic cations, anions,
gases, and particulates. Should acid proof vessel. Can be tank
or earthen dam with liner.
Agitator, aerator, pump, air-lift pump, or various mixers
to provide mixing.
Storage tanks for various pretreatment chemicals.
Pipeline with valves and possibly pumps to distribute
contaminated water to stage 2 ion exchange vessels equipped with
individual valves to be able to shut off the flow of any tank(s).
Vessels to hold ion exchange material. Should be acid
proof and should have walls greater than 80 degrees from
horizontal. Equipped with plumbing system in the bottoms. (see
Pipe manifold with valves and pump(s) for discharging
treated water from stage 2 to stage 4.
Chemical storage tank(s) for hydrochloric acid or other
desorption chemicals equipped with agitator(s).
Treated water tank from stage 2 to be used for rinsing
the ion adsorption material.
Compressor or blower.
Piping system with valves and pump(s) for stage 3
desorption. The system is used for the desorption chemicals,
treated effluent from stage 2, and air.
Polishing vessel for stage 4 used for final chemical
adjustment and aeration. This vessel may be a tank or lined
Discharge pipeline from stage 4 that can go to a river,
irrigation purposes, or the like.
Discharge pipe from the top of the stage 2 ion exchange
material tanks to run to the stage 5 brine storage and
concentrating vessel or pond. Each pipeline from the stage 2 ion
exchange tanks is equipped with a valve.
Stage 5 brine storage vessel or lined earthen dam for
further concentration of Sodium.